<< 1880-1889
1900-1910 >>
Date Event Subjects
1890 The Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra, with 10,351 stars classified by Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming (1857-1911), was published (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, volume 27). The classification scheme of Fleming later was replaced by that of Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941). [0641] Astronomy
1890 Henry Augustus Rowland (1848-1901) won a gold medal and a grand prize at the Paris Exposition for his concave spectral grating and his map of the solar spectrum. Rowland is best remembered for his invention of ruling of the spectral grating. [0642] Awards and Prizes / Physics
1890 Clinton Hart Merriam (1855-1942), who came to be noted especially for his work on life zones of faunal distribution, reported on the subject in his "Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region and Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona," North American Fauna 3:119-136. [0643] Biology—General
1890 Prior to the era of large foundations for support, the National Academy of Sciences in this year had an endowment for support of research that amounted to only $94,000. These funds yielded an annual income of $4,000. [0644] General or Miscellaneous / Funds and Funding
1890 Beginning in this year, the U.S. Geological Survey became increasingly interested in Alaska, prompted by the discovery of gold in the territory and in northwestern Canada during the 1880s. Alfred Hulse Brooks (1871-1924) was put in charge of the new Alaska branch of the Survey in 1903 and retained the post (with the exception of a period during World War I) until his death. [0645] Government—Federal / Geology
1890 The U.S. Weather Bureau was established by Congress in the Department of Agriculture, transferring the weather service from the Army Signal Corps. Cleveland Abbe (1838-1916), associated with the enterprise since 1871, accompanied the move to the new bureau. In 1940, it was transferred to the Department of Commerce and in 1965 to the newly established Environmental Science Services Administration. [0646] Government—Federal / Meteorology and Climatology
1890 The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was established by the Institution's secretary, Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906). The establishment had the support of both private and governmental funds. [0647] Organizations—Observatories / Astronomy
1890 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Cold Spring Harbor, New York) was established. [0648] Organizations—Research Institutions / Biology–General
1890 The American Society of Zoologists was founded. Initially known as the American Morphological Society, the name was changed in 1903. [0649] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Zoology
1890 The Philosophy of science journal, Monist, was founded, of which Paul Carus (1852-1919) was editor. Carus also was editor of the previously established The Open Court. [0649.5] Periodicals and Publishing / Philosophy
1890 William James (1842-1910) published The Principles of Psychology (New York), in two volumes. [0650] Psychology
1890 Stephen Moulton Babcock (1843-1931) reported his test for butterfat in milk and cream (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin Experiment Station, no. 24). Not requiring scientific training, the test became widespread and helped in the development of the dairy industry. [0651] Technology and Invention / Chemistry
1890 An electrically operated punched card calculating system of Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) was used on the U.S. census. [0652] Technology and Invention / Computers and Information Science
1890 (April 30) The National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., was established by an act of Congress. [0653] Government—Federal / Zoology
1890 (September 25) Yosemite National Park was established by Congress. John Muir (1838-1914), who was first to show the glacial origin of the Yosemite Valley, and Robert U. Johnson (1853-1937) were instrumental in promoting the project. [0654] Government—Federal / Environment and Conservation
1890-1903 William Healey Dall (1845-1927) published his chief work in malacology, "Contributions to the Tertiary Fauna of Florida," Transactions of Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia 3, parts 1-6. [0655] Zoology / Conchology and Malacology
1891 Hubert Anson Newton (1830-1896) published "On the Capture of Comets by Planets, Especially Their Capture by Jupiter," Memoirs of National Academy of Sciences 6:7-23. [0656] Astronomy
1891 Seth Carlo Chandler (1846-1913) published early reports on his astronomical work on the discovery of variation of latitude. The investigations on which he reported had begun at least as early as 1884-1885. About the same time, similar conclusions were reached by Friedrich Kustner in Berlin. Chandler's work appeared as "On the Variation of Latitude" in Astronomical Journal 11 (1891), 12 (1892), 13 (1893). [0657] Astronomy
1891 George Ellery Hale (1868-1938) first used his spectroheliograph to take a picture of the sun. [0658] Astronomy / Instruments and Instrumentation
1891 Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906) published Nature and Man in America (New York), promoting the idea of the relations of environment and history. [0659] Environment and Conservation
1891 Samuel P. Langley (1834-1906) published Experiments in Aerodynamics (Washington, D.C.). [0660] General or Miscellaneous / Aeronautics
1891 Geologist George Perkins Merrill (1854-1929) published Stones for Building and Decoration (New York). Subsequent editions appeared in 1897 and 1903. [0661] General or Miscellaneous / Geology
1891 The New York Botanical Garden was incorporated by the New York state legislature. Promoted by Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934), Elizabeth Knight Britton (1858-1934), and the Torrey Botanical Club, in 1895 the city of New York made available 250 acres in Bronx Park. N.L. Britton was made director in 1896 and the public opening took place in 1900. [0662] Organizations—Botanical Gardens
1891 The Bulletin of New York Mathematical Society was established. In 1894, it became Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. [0663] Periodicals and Publishing / Mathematics
1891 The Journal of Comparative Neurology was founded by Clarence L. Herrick (1858-1904), at the University of Cincinnati. In 1904, Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956) became a staff member and the name was changed to Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology. [0664] Periodicals and Publishing / Psychology, Zoology
1891 The Tesla coil, a transformer that produced high voltage at high frequency, was invented by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943). [0665] Technology and Invention / Electricity and Electronics
1891 Harvard University set up its Boyden astronomical station at Arequipa, Peru, which continued in operation until 1927. Solon Irving Bailey (1854-1931) and William Henry Pickering (1858-1938), younger brother of Harvard observatory director Edward Charles Pickering (1846-1919), both were involved in its establishment. Bailey for many years exercised general supervision over the facility. [0666] Organizations—Observatories / Astronomy
1891 George Ellery Hale (1868-1938) and William W. Payne (1837-1928) founded the journal, Astronomy and Astro-Physics, formerly the Sidereal Messenger. [0667] Periodicals and Publishing / Astronomy
1891 During his years on the faculty of Clark University, 1889-1892, neurologist Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857-1938) studied the brain of Laura Bridgman, a blind deaf-mute. In 1891, he published an important work on the subject and in 1895 he published The Growth of the Brain: A Study of the Nervous System in Relation to Education (London). [0668] Zoology—Human / Neurobiology
1891 (March 3) Congress passed the Forest Reserve Act, which resulted in the president setting aside 13,000,000 acres of public land as forest reserves. [0669] Government—Federal / Environment and Conservation
1892 Edward Emerson Barnard (1857-1923) discovered the fifth satellite of Jupiter, using the Lick Observatory's 36-inch refractor. In the same year, Barnard's observations of a cloud of gas given off by a nova as it brightens was evidence that they are exploding stars. [0670] Astronomy
1892 Arthur Amos Noyes (1866-1936) published the text, Notes on Qualitative Analysis (Boston). Under various titles, it had ten editions, the last published posthumously in 1942. Noyes helped to disseminate electrolytic dissociation theory of Wilhelm Ostwald in this work, directing analysis to the level of ions rather than molecules. [0671] Chemistry
1892 Alexander F. Chamberlain (1865-1914) received the first American Ph.D. in anthropology. Conferred by Clark University, the work was supervised by Franz Boas (1858-1942). [0672] General or Miscellaneous / Anthropology and Ethnology
1892 George Frederick Wright (1838-1921) published Man and the Glacial Period (New York). Wright's contention that humans lived in North America during the Pleistocene era resulted in a widespread controversy in the scientific community. [0673] Geology
1892 The University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory was established. [0674] Organizations—Observatories / Astronomy
1892 The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology was founded in Philadelphia. [0675] Organizations—Research Institutions / Biology—General
1892 The Sierra Club was established. [0676] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Environment and Conservation
1892 The American Psychological Association was established. Granville Stanley Hall (1846-1924), who had convened the organizational meeting at Clark University, was made the first president. [0677] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Psychology
1892 Logician and psychologist Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) developed a color theory that was controversial. [0678] Psychology
1892 Charles Sedgwick Minot (1852-1914) published Human Embryology (New York). [0679] Zoology—Human / Embryology
1892 William Osler (1849-1919) published the important textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine (New York), while holding the position of professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. [0680] Medicine
1892 (April 19) Charles E. Duryea (1861-1938) and his brother J. Frank Duryea (1869-1967), in Springfield, Mass., achieved the first operational American automobile. It was publicly demonstrated on September 21, 1893. [0681] Technology and Invention
1893 Bailey Willis (1857-1949) published results of laboratory research in geology, "The Mechanics of Appalachian Structure," Report of United States Geological Survey, 13, part 2:211-281. The work was especially noted in Europe. [0682] Geology
1893 Theobald Smith (1859-1934), with Fred Lucius Kilborne (1858-1936), published Investigations Into the Nature, Causation, and Prevention of Texas or Southern Cattle Fever (Washington, D.C.). The research demonstrated that the Disease was caused by a micro-organism transmitted by a tick, the first time such a carrying agent was shown. The work was done by Smith, Kilborne, and Curtice Cooper in the U.S. Bureau of Animal Industry. [0683] Medicine / Agriculture
1893 William Hallock Park (1863-1939) discovered the role of healthy humans in the transmission of diphtheria. [0684] Medicine / Disease
1893 The Johns Hopkins Medical School was opened. [0685] Organizations—Academic / Medicine
1893 Popular Astronomy was established. It was published by Goodsell Observatory, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. [0686] Periodicals and Publishing / Astronomy
1893 The Journal of Geology was established by Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) at the newly established University of Chicago. [0687] Periodicals and Publishing / Geology
1893 (July) The Physical Review began publication. It was produced by Edward L. Nichols (1854-1937) at Cornell University, with a subsidy from the University and was American physicists' first research journal. In 1913, it was taken over by the American Physical Society. [0688] Periodicals and Publishing / Physics
1894 Charles Edwin Bessey (1845-1915) published the first of his two classic papers on plant phylogeny, "Evolution and Classification," Proceedings of American Association for the Advancement of Science 42:237-251. The second paper, "Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Flowering Plants" appeared in Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 2 (1915): 109-164. [0689] Botany / Evolution
1894 Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) published the important neo-Lamarckian study, "Phylogeny of an Acquired Characteristic," Proceedings of American Philosophical Society 32:349-647. [0690] Evolution
1894 William Morris Davis (1850-1934) published Elementary Meteorology (Boston), a textbook. [0691] Meteorology and Climatology
1894 Percival Lowell (1855-1916) established an observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona. [0692] Organizations—Observatories / Astronomy
1894 The Botanical Society was formally established, as an association for professional botanists (defined in terms of serious interest in research and publication). In 1892, a botanical section (G) had been established in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and in 1893 the national botanical organization was formulated with the election of charter members at the AAAS meeting. [0693] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Botany
1894 The American Mathematical Society was formed from the existing New York Mathematical Society. [0694] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Mathematics
1894 American Mathematical Monthly was established; it was published by Kidder Institute in Missouri. In 1916, it became the official publication of the Mathematical Association of America. [0695] Periodicals and Publishing / Mathematics
1894 James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) and James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) founded Psychological Review. Cattell served as editor until 1903. [0696] Periodicals and Publishing / Psychology
1894-1896 During these years, Ernest Fox Nichols (1869-1924) was a student in Berlin. Assisted by Ernst Pringsheim, he constructed an improved radiometer (the Nichols radiometer). It was particularly effective in infrared measurements and the use of the instrument constituted his chief scientific work. [0697] Physics / Instruments and Instrumentation
1894-1927 During these years, when the division of insects was under the leadership of Leland Ossian Howard (1857-1950), the U.S. Department of Agriculture's budget for work in entomology increased from an annual $30,000 to $3,000,000. [0698] Government—Federal / Entomology
1895 Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) published The Elements of the Four Inner Planets and the Fundamental Constants of Astronomy (Washington, D.C.). A Paris conference the next year concluded that, beginning in 1901, the constants (with modest change) should become the standard for ephemerides of all nations. [0699] Astronomy
1895 James Edward Keeler (1857-1900) at the Allegheny Observatory confirmed James Clerk Maxwell's contention that the rings of Saturn are particulate in nature. The work was published as "Spectroscopic Proof of the Meteoritic Constitution of Saturn's Rings," Astrophysical Journal 1 (1895): 416-427. [0700] Astronomy
1895 Arthur Amos Noyes (1866-1936) established "Review of American Chemical Research," which began publication in Technology Quarterly and later appeared in Journal of American Chemical Society. In 1907, it became Chemical Abstracts. The first editor of Chemical Abstracts (1907-1910) was William Albert Noyes (1857-1941), distant cousin to Arthur Noyes. [0701] Information Access / Chemistry
1895 The National Science Teachers Association was founded. [0702] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Education in science
1895 James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) acquired ownership and became editor of Science, a relationship he retained for the remainder of his life. [0703] Periodicals and Publishing
1895 The Astrophysical Journal was established under the editorship of George Ellery Hale (1868-1938) and James Edward Keeler (1857-1900). (Edwin Brant Frost, 1866-1935, served as an assistant editor from this date and as editor 1902-1935.) [0704] Periodicals and Publishing / Astronomy
1895 Wallace Clement Ware Sabine (1868-1919) began his work in architectural acoustics, answering a request of Harvard University President Charles W. Eliot (1834-1926) to determine the nature of acoustical problems in a University lecture hall. This was the initiation of Sabine's contributions that turned architectural acoustics from a strictly trial-and-error activity to a quantitatively-based applied science. [0705] Physics / Acoustics
1895 John Henry Comstock (1849-1931) published A Manual for the Study of Insects with illustrations by his wife, Anna Botsford Comstock (1854-1930). [0706] Zoology / Entomology
1895 George Neil Stewart (1860-1930) published Manual of Physiology with Practical Exercises (London). There was an eighth edition in 1918. The work was notable for the inclusion of the student exercises and experiments involving mammals. [0707] Zoology / Physiology
1895-1914 Alpheus Spring Packard, Jr. (1839-1905) published Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of North America (Memoirs of National Academy of Sciences, vols. 7, 9, 12) (Washington, D.C.). [0708] Zoology / Entomology
1896 At the Lick Observatory, William Wallace Campbell (1862-1938) began a program of observations aimed at delineating the path of the sun among the other stars. The plan not only achieved Campbell's intent but resulted in data for other significant stellar studies. [0709] Astronomy
1896 The stellar spectra classification by Antonia Maury (1866-1952) of 681 bright stars in the northern sky, using a scheme that reflected greater degrees of differentiation, was published in Annals of Harvard College Observatory vol. 28, part 1. Although praised by some, later work at the Harvard observatory followed the classification scheme perfected by Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941), who joined the Observatory staff in this year and remained there until her death. [0710] Astronomy
1896 Albert Sauveur (1863-1939) published "The Microstructure of Steel and the Current Theories of Hardening," Transactions of American Institute of Mining Engineers 26:863-906. The paper was widely noticed and discussion of it at a meeting of the American Institute was published in 1898 in the Institute's transactions. [0711] Engineering and Applied Science / Metallurgy
1896 Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897) published The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago), in which he defended the idea of acquired characteristics. [0712] Evolution
1896 The Division of the Biological Survey was formed from the older Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These events affirmed the agency's research orientation. In 1905, it became the Bureau of Biological Survey. It was incorporated into the newly established Fish and Wildlife Service in 1940. [0713] Government—Federal / Biology—General
1896 At the invitation of the U.S. Department of Interior, the National Academy of Sciences appointed a committee, chaired by Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), which in 1897 issued a report "On the Inauguration of a Rational Forest Policy for the Forested Lands of the United States." One outcome was that President Grover Cleveland established 21,000,000 acres of forest reserves. Legislation in 1897 essentially confirmed Cleveland's action and established the rudiments of a policy for dealing with the forests. The president of the Academy and important in the formation of the study committee was Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822-1908). [0714] Government—Federal / Environment and Conservation
1896 The first diagnostic X-ray photograph in the United States was produced by Michael I. Pupin (1858-1935). In the same year, Dr. Emil H. Grube was first in the country to use X-rays in the treatment of breast cancer. [0715] Medicine / Instruments and Instrumentation
1896 Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874-1954) received the first doctorate in mathematics from the University of Chicago. [0716] Organizations—Academic / Mathematics
1896 The Tabulating Machine Company was founded by Herman Hollerith (1860-1929). Through mergers thereafter, it was part of the origins of what became the International Business Machines Company (IBM). [0717] Organizations—Industry / Computers and Information Science
1896 The Journal of Physical Chemistry began publication as the first journal on the subject published outside of Germany. It was founded by Wilder Dwight Bancroft (1867-1953), at Cornell University, who financed as well as edited (or coedited) the journal until he transferred it to the American Chemical Society in 1932. [0718] Periodicals and Publishing / Chemistry
1896 Louis Agricola Bauer (1865-1932) founded the journal Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity (later, Journal of Geophysical Research). He served as editor until 1927. [0719] Periodicals and Publishing / Geophysics and Geodesy
1896 The Journal of Experimental Medicine was established. [0720] Periodicals and Publishing / Medicine
1896 Andrew Dickson White (1832-1918) published A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (New York). [0721] Religion and Theology
1896 In Washington, a steam-powered aerial machine of Samuel P. Langley (1834-1906) flew three-quarters of a mile before crashing. [0722] Technology and Invention / Aeronautics
1896 Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856-1939) published The Cell in Development and Inheritance (New York). In 1925, a third, revised and enlarged edition appeared. Wilson's central idea in doing the book was to trace the relations between cell and evolutionary theory. The book has been labeled as the most influential book on cytology of the twentieth century. [0723] Zoology / Evolution
1897 George Perkins Merrill (1854-1929) published A Treatise on Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils (New York). A second edition appeared in 1906. [0724] Geology
1897 Dow Chemical Company was founded by Herbert Henry Dow (1866-1930). The company's initial product was chlorine bleach. [0725] Organizations—Industry / Chemistry
1897 The University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory at Williams Bay, Wisconsin, was dedicated. A facility directed by George Ellery Hale (1868-1938), it contained a 40-inch refractor telescope, the largest in the world. The lens had originally been made by Alvan G. Clark (1832-1897) for a southern California observatory, but that group was unable to follow through because of financial reverses. [0726] Organizations—Observatories / Instruments and Instrumentation
1897 The Society for Plant Morphology and Physiology was established. [0727] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Botany
1897 Charles Schuchert (1858-1942) published Synopsis of American Fossil Brachiopoda (Bulletin of U.S. Geological Survey, 87) (Washington, D.C.). [0728] Paleontology
1897 Ernst J. Berg (1871-1941) and Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923) published the textbook, Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena (New York). Steinmetz subsequently wrote a number of other influential texts on electricity. [0729] Physics / Electricity and Electronics
1897 (April 12) Zoologist and paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (b.1840) died at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [0730] General or Miscellaneous / Paleontology, Zoology
1897-1900 The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, substantially the effort of Franz Boas (1858-1942), undertook to determine cultural relations between peoples of Siberia and the Northwest Coast. [0731] Anthropology and Ethnology
1898 The Association for Maintaining the American Women's Table at the Zoological Station (at Naples) was established. In 1917, it became the Association to Aid Scientific Research by Women. The Society last met in 1932. [0732] Organizations—Societies and Associations
1898 The Sullivant Moss Society was founded, chiefly due to the efforts of Elizabeth Knight Britton (1858-1934). After 1948, it was known as the American Bryological Society. [0733] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Botany
1898 Charles Doolittle Walcott (1850-1927) published an important work on fossil jellyfish. [0734] Paleontology
1898 The journal Metallographist (from 1904, Iron and Steel Magazine) was founded by Albert Sauveur (1863-1939), who also served as editor until the publication's demise in 1906. [0735] Periodicals and Publishing / Metallurgy
1898 The American Journal of Physiology was established. [0736] Periodicals and Publishing / Physiology
1899 The ninth satellite of Saturn (Phoebe) was found by William Henry Pickering (1858-1938). [0737] Astronomy
1899 Charles Benedict Davenport (1866-1944) published a manual, Statistical Methods with Special Reference to Biological Variation (New York), which helped introduce biometric methodology into the United States (and especially the work of Karl Pearson). A fourth edition appeared in 1936. [0738] Biology—General / Statistics
1899 The Harriman Alaska Expedition of this year had biologist Clinton Hart Merriam (1855-1942) as scientific director and report editor. [0739] Exploration and Surveying
1899 Amadeus William Grabau (1870-1946) published an early work that studied the environment of old sedimentary rocks in light of knowledge of the conditions of life among modern organisms, "The Relations of Marine Bionomy to Stratigraphy," Bulletin of Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 6 no. 4 (September 1899): 319-356. It was a step toward the development of paleoEcology. [0740] Geology / Paleontology
1899 The Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America was founded, with its first meeting at George Ellery Hale's (1868-1938) Yerkes Observatory. In 1914, the name was changed to American Astronomical Society, astrophysics having achieved a secure place in the discipline. [0741] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Astronomy
1899 The Society of American Bacteriologists was organized. (It later became the American Society for Microbiology.) [0742] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Microbiology and Microscopy
1899 The American Physical Society was established at a meeting at Columbia University. This first professional society devoted to physics in the United States was founded largely due to the efforts of Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923). Henry A. Rowland (1848-1901) was the Society's first president. [0743] Organizations—Societies and Associations / Physics
1899 Biological Bulletin was established. It was published by the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. [0744] Periodicals and Publishing / Biology—General
1899 The journal Bird Lore was founded by Frank Michler Chapman (1864-1945). He served as editor until 1934. It later became Audubon Magazine. [0745] Periodicals and Publishing / Zoology
1899 William Keith Brooks (1848-1908) published The Foundations of Zoology (New York). [0746] Zoology
1899 Hermon Carey Bumpus (1862-1943) published "The Elimination of the Unfit as Illustrated by the Introduced Sparrow, Passer domesticus," Biological Lectures from the Marine Biological Laboratory, Wood's Hole, Mass., 1898, 4 (Boston, 1899): 209-226. Among his conclusions was that extremely variable individuals were more susceptible to selective elimination. This study of English sparrows as affected by a severe winter storm is notable as an instance of natural selection in operation. [0747] Zoology / Evolution
1899 Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) reported on his successful experiments in raising sea urchins from unfertilized eggs to the larval stage by altering the concentration of salt in the solution. A result of these widely noted studies was to increase interest in work involving the application of physico-chemical approaches (specifically, osmotic pressures) to biological phenomenon. [0748] Zoology / Physiology


Created and Maintained by Dr. Clark A. Elliott Waltham, MA
clark_elliott at verizon dot net / Content updated 16 June 2008
Technical presentation by Andrew J. Elliott.